What is the Art Deco architectural style and what are its features? - پلتفرم مشاورمون
What is the Art Deco architectural style and what are its features? - پلتفرم مشاورمون

What is the Art Deco architectural style and what are its features?

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Art Deco gained international attention between 1925 and 1940, but began several years earlier in France. Art Deco was inspired by various styles such as modernism, neoclassicism, Cubism, etc., and flourished in America.

Art Deco, or “decorative art,” was a creative but short art movement that influenced the architectural style of most American cities. He was also able to enter other fields such as fashion, art, jewelry, furniture and home appliances and even in the design of airplanes, trains and cars such as the Studebaker Commander. Art Deco became popular in 1925 and continued until 1940. During this period, American artists greatly welcomed it and considered it a style that was a new change from the revivalist styles of its predecessors.

Art Deco began before World War I in France; But after World War I, and in a period that was considered a time of hardship for many people and a time of success for a few. For this reason, it is usually dated to around 1920 AD. This style tried to have a unified look and show an image of endurance and hope for the future. It also used the new technologies of its time, while alluding to past civilizations. After the 1925 Decorative Arts Exhibition in Paris, the style eventually made its way to Hollywood and quickly became world famous. After World War II, Art Deco was no longer as famous as it used to be, but it was not completely forgotten. This style affected almost all aspects of the life of the people of that period and future designs, and it can be said that it formed a new generation. Following the publication of a book by Bevis Hillier, the style became popular again in the 1960s. Many buildings and skyscrapers of this style still stand and have their own fans. 

Origin of Art Deco

Art Deco first originated in Europe and in areas such as Paris, where they were known for their role in the development of design. A competition was held in 1922 to select the best design for the new headquarters of the Chicago Tribune. Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen presented a design with Art Deco architectural features in the competition. Sarinen’s plan failed to win first place but left a significant impact on history; Because American architects became acquainted with the Art Deco style in this way. The winner of this competition was an American architect named Raymond Hood, who used his neo-Gothic design to build the “Tribune Tower”. Raymond Hood was influenced by Sarinen Art Deco designs and even used its features to complete his next design, the 1924 American Radiator Building project. The radiator building is a combination of Gothic and Art Deco style and is the first American skyscraper to use Art Deco architectural features.

Architectural features of decorative art

Art Deco had unique features that set it apart from other styles. Of course, the features of Art Deco buildings may differ from each other, but in general, the following are some of their common features:

Geometric shapes
Use zigzag lines
Wall paintings
Sculpture and relief
Mythical themes
The colors used in the exterior or interior of Art Deco buildings covered a wide range and usually contrasted with each other. These buildings were also a means for companies to demonstrate their nationalism in this way. For example, some buildings in the United States used large sculptures of eagles in the design of the building, which is a major symbol of the United States. In addition to the symbols of nationalism, decorations were sometimes used in some buildings that had mythological themes (especially Egyptian mythology). In Art Deco architecture, geometric shapes were used and engraving on glass and the use of glass blocks became popular in this style, which was used instead of bricks in the design of some buildings. Some Art Deco buildings, and especially their skyscrapers, had a stepped corner or section that had a circular shape. This Art Deco feature is easily recognizable in vehicles, giving both a stylish look to airplanes, trains, ships and cars, as well as improving their aerodynamics.

Art Deco buildings (except skyscrapers) had flat roofs and used old or new materials to make them, including linoleum, green jade, terracotta tiles, steel, and bakelite. Metal was also a great option for depicting what Art Deco was looking for: endurance and industrial strength. Art Deco architects added flat roofs, canopies, and minarets or tower-like structures to make a corner of the building or entrance section more visible. Art Deco was first used in public and commercial buildings in the 1920s, and private homes were seldom built in this style; But architects, especially in Washington, D.C., have found that the style fits in well with apartment buildings. The Kennedy – Warren apartment in Washington, D.C., is a good example of this style.

Examples of Art Deco architecture

Many buildings in the United States are Art Deco-style, including the Empire State Building, the Radio City Music Hall in New York, and the Merchandise Mart in Chicago. In addition to the above, the following examples are good examples of this style:

1. Chrysler Building, New York

The Chrysler Building was founded in 1930 and at that time, at 319 meters, was briefly the tallest building in the world. The building was designed by William van Alen and its metal minaret is decorated with shapes resembling the sun’s rays and eagle’s garlands.

2. Delano Hotel, Miami

South Beach is located in Miami Beach, Florida and is home to countless magnificent Art Deco buildings. The Delano South Beach Hotel is a popular hotel in the area, designed by Robert Swartburg in 1947 and renovated by Philippe Starck in 1995.

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